ADSL modem router parameters explained


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This article goes through the parameters of an ADSL modem router. It will give you a basic understanding of each parameter.

adsl modem routerWAN

– User name

Example : fmau7eqb

– Password

Example : qsrthu5o

User name and Password serve to authenticate the customer to the ISP.

– Connection

Example : PPPoE

PPPoE : Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet

PPPoE is used mainly with DSL services where individual users connect to the DSL modem over Ethernet.

– IP

Example : 81.22.221.61 is the customers public IP address (client IP) from the ISP.

In the usual home network, your ISP will be using dynamic addressing, in consequence you must select/enable that mode via DHCP.

– Sub net mask

Example : 255.0.0.0 is a “class A” sub net mask.

Mechanism of sub net mask : see below “LAN bridge”

– Gateway

Example : 81.22.221.1 is the ISP’s gateway address.

The (default) gateway connects a local area network to the Internet. In this case it connects the LAN behind the ADSL modem to the Internet.
Upon reception of the transmission, the default gateway checks if the destination address is in its sub net segment or if it has a map to get to the destination network. Keep in mind that a gateway can be attached to multiple network segments!

– Primary DNS

Example : 81.22.245.3 is the ISP’s primary DNS.

– Secondary DNS

Example : 81.22.245.123 is the ISP’s secondary DNS.

DNS : Domain Name Server

The primary and secondary DNS addresses may be made available automatically by the ISP, and so you may not need to specify them.

DNS, or Domain Name Server, represents a computer which is charged with the task of translating domain names into IP addresses. Due to the DNS service we can access websites by only typing their alpha-numeric names (domain names) in the browser instead of their IP addresses, which are the real server-side names of websites.

Domain names can work with only one name server – the primary DNS. However, practice has shown that a domain name needs to have at least two name servers assigned in order to be available at any time. In case there is a problem with the primary name server, the secondary name server will be able to answer the online for a particular domain. This back-up requirement has turned into an accepted Internet standard that prevents domain names from going offline.

– NAT

Example : ON

NAT : Network Address Translation

Most Internet service providers (ISPs) allocate only a single dynamic IP address (client IP) to each residential customer. If a private/home network needs to connect to the Internet, it can use a network address translator (NAT) gateway. The NAT translates the private/local IP addresses (sub net address) to the customers public IP address.

ADSL modem

– VPI

Example : 1

VPI : Virtual Path Identifier

A virtual path identifier (VPI) is a data communication identifier that uniquely identifies a network path for an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) cell packet to reach its destination node.

– VCI

Example : 32

VCI : Virtual Channel Identifier

A virtual channel identifier (VCI) distinguishes virtual channels (also known as circuits) created in a packet/cell switched network.

VCI and VPI are necessary to identify routing paths for ATM packets within telecommunication networks. The ISP requires them to communicate correctly with the ADSL modem router and the network behind it.

– Encapsulating type

Example : LLC/SNAP

LLC : Logical Link Control

The Logical Link Control layer is one of two sub layers of the data link layer in the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model of communication. The LCL layer is concerned with managing traffic like frame synchronization, flow control and error checking.

SNAP : SubNetwork Access Protocol

The Subnetwork Access Protocol is a mechanism for multiplexing on networks using IEEE 802.2 LLC. SNAP supports also the Ethernet protocol.

SubNetwork Access Protocol refers to a standard used for transmitting IP datagrams across IEEE 802 networks. This means that the IP datagrams can be routed on IEEE 802 networks encapsulated inside the SNAP data link layers, physical network layers and the 802.2 LLC.
SNAP is also used with non-IEEE 802 physical network layers that make use of 802.2 LLC.

– Protocol

Example : PPPoA

PPPoA : Point-to-Point Protocol over Asynchronous Transfer Mode

PPPoE is used in most countries, but there are some countries in which the ADSL modem-router needs to support PPPoA.

– Modulation

Example : Multimode

Multimode provides the capability to support all industry standard forms of ADSL.

LAN bridge

– Physical interfaces

Example : Ethernet / USB/ Wireless

– Sub net address (IP)

Example : 192.168.1.1 is a private/local IP address.

This address is from the “class C” range (192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.255) with the associated sub net mask 255.255.255.0.

– Sub net mask

Example : 255.255.255.0 is a “class C” standard sub net mask.

The sub net mask defines that 254 hosts/nodes can build a communicating logical network (segment). The sub net mask is associated with the sub net address 192.168.1.x
In other words, the sub net mask masks the sub net address. The first 3 numbers of the sub net mask (255.255.255) indicate that the first 3 numbers of the sub net address (192.168.1) do not change. On the other hand, the 0 of the sub net mask is a “placeholder” for the numbers 1 to 254, so you can have 254 different sub net addresses (192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.255).

– Ethernet MAC

Example : 00 1e 74 0b ff 1a is the MAC address of the modem-router’s Ethernet port.

MAC : Media Access Control

The MAC address is a unique identifier assigned to most network devices by the manufacturer for identification and it is used in the Media Access Control protocol sublayer.

– DHCP server

Example : started

Details, see next title

DHCP server

DHCP : Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

A DHCP server is responsible for assigning a unique private/local IP address to the computers on a network. DHCP servers will take a request from a computer that has just been added (or is renewing) to the network and assign it a unique private/local IP address.

– Sub net address (IP)

Example : 192.168.1.0 is a private/local IP address, the 0 identifies the subnet (192.168.1) itself.

– Sub net mask

Example : 255.255.255.0 is a “class C” standard sub net mask.

– Range

Example : 192.168.1.10 to 192.168.1.50

– Gateway IP address

Example : 192.168.1.1 is the gateways private/local IP address.

The gateway IP address (or default gateway) passes traffic from the local subnet to devices on other local subnets, for example from the Ethernet subnet to the wireless subnet. A subnet can also be a logical subnet, it must not be a physical one!

– Broadcast

Example : 192.168.1.255

A broadcast address is a network address that allows information to be sent to all nodes on a network, rather than to a specific network host.

– Primary DNS

Example : 192.168.1.1

– Secondary DNS

Example : 0.0.0.0

Wireless / WiFi

– MAC or BSSID

Example : 00 1e 37 ed f6 16 is the MAC address or BSSID of the modem-router.

MAC : Media Access Control (already explained, see “LAN bridge – Ethernet MAC”)

BSSID : Basic Service Set Identifier

The BSSID or the MAC address is a unique, non editable property of a wireless access point.

– SSID

Example : ABCbox_220a

SSID : Service Set Identifier

An SSID is the name of a wireless local area network (WLAN), chosen by the administrator of the network. All wireless devices on a WLAN must employ the same SSID in order to communicate with each other. It is possible for multiple access points to share the same SSID if they provide access to the same network.

– Chanel

Example : 10

To communicate, all the components of a WiFi network must use the same channel.
Most people use the default channel, like in this case channel 10. If you have a neighbor with a Wireless LAN device, try to use non-overlapping channels.

– Mode

Example : 802.11 b+g

There are several modes available : 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, or 802.11n.
The “b + g” combination lets communicate the modem-router with older (b) and newer (g) WiFi cards.

– Security

Example : 13 14 23 59 81 4f d5 dd 93 c5 97 8e 7a is a 128 bit WEP key.

WEP : Wired Equivalent Privacy

A WEP key is a security code used on some WiFi networks. WEP keys are chosen by a network administrator. Matching WEP keys must be set on each device for them to communicate with each other.

– MAC filter

Example : active

When the MAC filter is active, a device can only communicate with the modem-router if the MAC address of the device is in the modem-router’s MAC (address) table.

– MAC table

Example :

00:08:d3:38:67:b3
00:1e:2a:d7:b3:98
and so on

These are the MAC addresses of WiFI LAN devices.

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